• Pedagogical Content Tools: Integrating Student Reasoning and Mathematics in Instruction

    Chris Rasmussen, Karen Marrongelle
    Teaching in a manner consistent with reform recommendations is a challenging and often overwhelming task. Part of this challenge involves using students' thinking and understanding as a basis for the development of mathematical ideas (cf. NCTM, 2000). The purpose of this article is to address this challenge by developing the notion of pedagogical    content tool. A pedagogical content tool is a device such as a graph, diagram, equation, or verbal statement that a teacher intentionally uses to connect to student thinking while moving the mathematical agenda forward. We tender two examples of pedagogical content tools: Transformational record and generative alternative. These two pedagogical content tools are put forth as instructional counterparts to the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) design heuristics of emergent models and guided reinvention,    respectively. We illustrate the pedagogical content tools of transformational record and generative alternative by drawing on examples from two classroom   teaching experiments in undergraduate differential equations.
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