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High School Resources

Data Resources

Journal for Research in Mathematics Education

Mathematics Teacher

  • Data Analysis and Baseball
    This article describes an investigation that leads to one of the significant contributions that sabermetrics has made to our understanding of baseball. Applications of several principles of data analysis are illustrated in a manner that is familiar and motivating to students.
  • Graphic Methods for Instruction in Data Analysis
    This article explains stem-and-leaf plots and box-and-whisker plots and how they can be used in instruction in data analysis to organize and describe real-world data. Gross vehicular weights of trucks were used to demonstrate ways to present comprehensible, visual pictures of the data and their attributes and relationships.
  • Activities: Using Graphing Calculators to Model Real-World Data
    This article describes a scaffolding approach to teaching students concepts of linear modeling. The activity gives students opportunities to model real-world data that approximates a line.
  • Connecting Data and Geometry
    This article connects data and geometry by finding relationships between the areas and perimeters of randomly-generated rectangles.
  • The Role of Technology in Introductory Statistics Classes
    This article examines the use of computer software and statistics-enhanced graphing calculators in promoting reflection in introductory statistics classes. Results reveal increased emphasis on the conceptual basis of probability and data analysis with the integration of such technology.
  • Statistical Thinking with Trend Charts
    This article presents the basic ideas of statistical trend charts and their utility as a pedagogical tool for sparking statistical thinking.
  • Determining the Mean Center of the Population of the United States
    This article speculates on how the mean center of the population of the country might be determined.
  • Discuss with Your Colleagues: It's All in the Area
    This article provides examples and questions to help students understand the connection between the area under the curve and samples, histograms, and various other indicators to which they have been exposed. The questions progress from the intuitive nature of empirical probabilities to that of frequencies to proportions, proportions to probabilities, and ratio of areas in frequency charts to probabilities.
  • Exploring the Birthday Problem with Spreadsheets
    This article discusses the tendency of students to underestimate the probability of an event occurring more than once. Shaughnessy’s (1977) study is discussed, while revealing his findings, related to the importance of having students commit to a prediction beforehand and later address misconceptions.
  • Media Clips
    This article presents students’ analyses of information and data from the media when solving real-world problems.


Online Activities:

  • Whelk-come to Mathematics
    This Illuminations lesson involves using rational functions to investigate the behavior of northwestern crows.
  • Regression Line and Correlation
    This Illuminations lesson provides students with opportunities to investigate the relationship between a set of data points and a curve used to fit the data points. The applet involved allows for investigation of properties of regression lines and correlation.
  • State Data Map
    This Illuminations applet allows users to represent state data information, including land area, population, senators, and gasoline usage, via color coding and a resulting box-and-whiskers plot.
  • Bar Grapher
    This Illuminations applet allows the user to either create a customized bar graph from a personal data set or display a graph from a pre-made data set.
  • Box Plotter
    This Illuminations applet allows the user to either create a customized box plot from a personal data set or display a box plot from a pre-made data set.
  • Circle Grapher
    This Illuminations applet allows the user to either create a customized circle graph from a personal data set or display a circle graph from a pre-made data set.
  • Histogram Tool
    This Illuminations applet allows the user to either create a customized histogram from a personal data set or display a histogram from a pre-made data set.

Student Math Notes:

  • Census 2000 and Sampling
    This article focuses on the analysis of census data from 1790, 1890, and 1990. The mean center of population and other measures of central tendency are examined.


Probability Resources


Mathematics Teacher

Online Activities:

  • Explorations with Chance
    This Illuminations lesson promotes the analysis of fairness of certain games by examining the probability of outcomes. Students are given opportunities to predict results, play games, and calculate probabilities.
  • Random Drawing Tool - Individual Trials
    This Illuminations applet allows the user to explore the relationship between theoretical and experimental probabilities.
  • Random Drawing Tool - Sampling Distribution
    This Illuminations applet allows the user to explore sampling distributions by drawing multiple numbers many times.
  • Adjustable Spinner
    This Illuminations applet allows the user to create a spinner and examine the experimental and theoretical outcomes for a specified number of spins.



Research Briefs


  • Navigating through Data Analysis in Grades 9-12
    This book includes activities that introduce students to simple random sampling, sampling techniques, and simulation as tools for analyzing both categorical and numerical data. Activities promote the learning of how to effectively design a study, how to distinguish among observational studies, surveys, and experiments, and when to appropriately make statistical inferences.
  • Navigating through Probability in Grades 9-12
    This book provides strategies for introducing students to two different approaches to probability, within real-world contexts. Interpretation of probability as relative frequency over the long run and analyzing outcomes abstractly allows students to arrive at empirical and theoretical probabilities.
  • Principles and Standards for School Mathematics
    Chapter 3, Standards for School Mathematics: PreK-12, Data Analysis and Probability
  • 68th Yearbook: Thinking and Reasoning with Data as Chance
    This book covers a variety of broad areas, including learning, reasoning, and reflecting on issues related to data and chance.
  • Statistical Questions from the Classroom
    This book presents eleven short discussions over some of the most frequently asked statistics questions, from both statistics students and classroom teachers. Quick insight and support is offered via examples and visual representations.

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