Beneath the Tip of the Iceberg: Using Representations to Support Student Understanding
David Webb, Nina Boswinkel, Truus Dekker
September 2008, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 110
The "iceberg model" is introduced, which has been used in the Netherlands to support teacher identification of informal and preformal representations that build students' understanding of formal mathematics. The tip of the iceberg represents the targeted formal procedure or symbolic representation. The bulk of the iceberg that sits under the water is represented by a combination of informal representations. Included are suggestions on how this model can be used to support professional development, collaborative instructional planning, and identification of appropriate interventions.
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