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Arithmetic for First Graders Lacking Number Concepts

Constance Kamii and Judith Rummelsburg; 

March 2008, Volume 14, Issue 7, Page 389

To build cognitive foundation for number, twenty-six low-performing, low-SES first graders did mathematical physical-knowledge activities, such as bowling, during the first half of the year. As their arithmetic readiness developed, they tried more word problems and games. At the end of the year, these children did better in mental arithmetic and word problems than a comparison group that received traditional mathematics instruction with textbooks and workbooks throughout the year. This article shows the results of the data that has been collected.

Mixed Methods
Conceptual Development
Basic Facts