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November 1998, Volume 29, Issue 5


Students' Spatial Structuring of 2D Arrays of Squares
Michael T. Battista, Douglas H. Clements, Judy Arnoff, Kathryn Battista, Caroline Van Auken Borrow
We define spatial structuring as the mental operation of constructing an organization or form for an object or set of objects. It is an essential mental process underlying students' quantitative dealings with spatial situations. In this article, we examine in detail students' structuring and enumeration of 2-dimensional (2D) rectangular arrays of squares. Our research indicates that many students do not "see" the row-by-column structure we assume in such arrays. We describe the various levels of sophistication in students' structuring of these arrays and elaborate the nature of the mental process of structuring. 

The Portrayal of Parents in the School Mathematics Reform Literature: Locating the Context for Parental Involvement
Liora Linchevski
In this article, using reform recommendations that call for parental involvement as a springboard, I provide an analysis of the positioning of parents in the school mathematics reform literature. Employing Foucault's (1980) conception of "regimes of truth," I demonstrate how the literature has created the accepted discourse for mathematics education reform. I then argue that the professionalization of teachers has distanced parents from schools and led to conflict between parents and mathematics educators and that to reconcile this conflict, ways in which parents can be included in mathematics education must be considered. It is essential first, however, to understand issues central to involving parents in mathematics education. A research agenda for parental involvement in mathematics education is presented.