Helping English-Language Learners Develop Computational Fluency
How teachers can help English-language learners develop computational fluency.
Toward Computational Fluency in Multidigit Multiplication and Division
An alternative to traditional instruction in multiplication and division to develop students' computational fluency.
From NCTM's Archives: Meaning and Skill - Maintaining the Balance
This reprint from the October 1956 issue of The Arithmetic Teacher gives readers a sense of the timelessness of some of the issues surrounding the work of teaching for computational fluency.
Discussion as a Vehicle for Demonstrating Computational Fluency in Multiplication
This article focuses on children making sense of multiplication. In an activity called "Silent Multiplication", students use what they know about easier multiplication problems to solve increasingly difficult, related problems mentally.
Computational Fluency, Algorithms, and Mathematical Proficiency: One Mathematician's Perspective
An argument that algorithms, both traditional and student-invented, are proper objects of study, not only as tools for computation but also for understanding the nature of the operations of arithmetic.
Developing Teachers' Computational Fluency: Examples in Subtraction
Judith Flowers, Kate Kline, Rheta Rubenstein
The importance of developing teachers' computational fluency so that they can effectively support their students' fluency work. Includes suggestions for helping teachers develop computational fluency with subtraction.
Subtraction Strategies from Children's Thinking: Moving toward Fluency with Greater Numbers
DeAnn Huinker, Janis Freckman, Meghan Steinmeyer
A description of the work that students and teachers do to develop computational fluency for subtraction. The article examines the orchestration of whole-class discourse and presents a collection of common strategies.
Promoting Meaningful Mastery of Addition and Subtraction
Kristian Postlewait, Michelle Adams, Jeffrey Shih
Classroom practices that promote the understanding of number concepts in the primary grades.
When Flash Cards Are Not Enough
Ways to increase students' computational fluency using concrete materials, engaging tasks, and reflection time to increase number automaticity, flexibility in thinking about numbers, and use of efficient problem-solving strategies to find sums and differences.