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## Election Resources

#### Elementary

Electing a President - Short activities sorted by K-2, 3-4, and 5-6 (Teaching Children Mathematics)

Election Mathematics - Short activities sorted by K-2, 3-4, and 5-6 (Teaching Children Mathematics)

from the classroom: Extra Cheese Wins - Ballots, fairness, and the U.S. Electoral College provided a successful context to work with fractions, percent, ratios, probability, and combinations in a fifth-grade classroom during the 2008 presidential election. (Teaching Children Mathematics)

Voting Changed My Teaching Approach - Fourth graders’ creative thinking concerning a long-standing research problem stimulated changes in instructional strategies. (Teaching Children Mathematics)

problem solvers: problem: Classroom elections - In elementary school classrooms, mock elections can provide data to use for many mathematical explorations and graphical representations. (Teaching Children Mathematics)

Elections: Picking a Winner! - Students explore three alternative voting methods (the Borda count method, the pairwise comparison method, and the single transferable method). Students determine the winner of an election based on each voting method, compare the election results based on each method, and consider benefits and limitations of each method. (Student Explorations in Mathematics)

#### Middle School

Map the Race to the White House - Analyze graphs, learn about population distributions, and study the effect on the electoral voting process with the 2008 election. (Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School)

Presidential Playing Field - Lesson exploring electoral votes from 1888 to 2000. (Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School)

Getting into the Electoral College - Unit exploring the electoral college, focusing on percentages, ratios, area, problem-solving and reasoning skills.  (Illuminations)

What Percentage Does it Take to Win a Vote? - Exploring elections and percents in a school setting. (Figure This!)

#### High School

Apportionment in the Democratic Primary Process - Activity using mathematical models and algebra to analyze the 2008 New Jersey Democratic presidential primary. (Mathematics Teacher)

Predicting the Presidential Election - Least-squares linear regression lesson to predict the 2004 presidential election. (Mathematics Teacher)

What If? How Apportionment Methods Choose Our Presidents
The U.S. presidential election of 2000 would have had a different outcome if a different apportionment method had been used. (Mathematics Teacher)

Power Indices and U.S. Presidential Elections
The 2000 presidential election provides an ideal backdrop for introducing the electoral voting system, weighted voting, and the Banzhaf and Shapley-Shubik Power Indices. (Mathematics Teacher)

Decennial Redistricting: Rich Mathematics in Context - Redistricting can provide a real-world application for use in a wide range of mathematics classrooms. (Mathematics Teacher)

How Many Votes? - Mathematical modeling lesson to determine the fewest number of votes necessary in order to be elected president. (Mathematics Teacher)

Will the Best Candidate Win? - Lesson in which students explore advantages and disadvantages of alternative voting methods. (Mathematics Teacher)

Minimum Fraction of the Popular Vote to Elect the President - Polya's general solution and discussion of implications in high school applications. (Mathematics Teacher)

Getting into the Electoral College - Unit exploring the electoral college, focusing on percentages, ratios, area, problem-solving and reasoning skills. (Illuminations)

### Online Tools

State Data Map - Interactive US map that shades the states proportionately according to population, electoral votes, or data the user inputs (Illuminations)

Electoral Calculator - Predict who will win the next election by entering which party will win each state. (National Archives)

Math and Voting - See how your vote influences the outcome of the election using different methods. (American Statistical Association)

General Information - Information about elections in the US, other voting methods, and the math of voting methods. (NCTM)

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