General Classroom Strategies 
Grade Band 
Addressing the Equity Principle in the Math Classroom Summaries of secondary math teachers' conception of equity after completing a yearlong seminar based on NCTM's Equity Principle. Suggestions are provided for achieving a more equitable math classroom. (MT 200804) 


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Addressing the Equity Principle in the Math Classroom Summaries of secondary math teachers' conception of equity after completing a yearlong seminar based on NCTM's Equity Principle. Suggestions are provided for achieving a more equitable math classroom. (MT 200804) 


HS 
Student Representations at the Center: Promoting Classroom Equity The use of student's mathematical representations to build classroom community, and promote participation and equity in classrooms. Discussion follows a seventh grade lesson on multiplying fractions. (MTMS 200804) 

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Promoting Math Accessibility through Multiple Representations Jigsaws How to use the jigsaw grouping technique, a pedagogical approach designed around small group work, as a strategy to promote accessibility to mathematics for more students. Includes two lessons built for jigsaw groups, along with student work examples. (MTMS 200804) 

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Tiering and Scaffolding: Two Strategies for Providing Access to Important Math Examples of tiering and scaffolding to promote equity among students: tiering a third grade fractions lesson; and tiering and scaffolding a second grade geometry lesson. There is also a general discussion of equity. (TCM 200802) 
ES 


TeacherOrchestrated Classroom Arguments A vision of classroom discourse that actively involves students and uses students' explanations to develop mathematical ideas. The vision expects that students participate in classroom arguments with strong teacher guidance. (MT 200711) 


HS 
Promoting Equity in Math: One Teacher's Journey Some of the negative impacts of mathematics tracking in schools. The article advocates for a heterogeneous learning environment. (MT 200708) 


HS 
Using Tiered Lessons in Mathematics A stepbystep procedure to differentiate instruction through tiered lessons. (MTMS 200510) 
ES 


Spotlight on the Principles: The Pursuit of Math for All! The Equity Principle is explored through the thoughts of a middle school teacher as she works with a student through a class project. (MTMS 200505) 

MS 
HS 
Focusing on Students' Mathematical Thinking The importance of focusing on student mathematical thinking during classroom discussions; provides practical suggestions to classroom teachers to help keep the focus on student thinking. (MT 200404) 


HS 
Understanding and Supporting Children's Math Vocabulary Challenges children face in learning mathematics vocabulary and teaching strategies to circumvent those challenges. (TCM 200210) 
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Teaching Strategies for "Algebra for All" Broad classroom strategies for enhancing academic achievement for all students, including a discussion of the nature and scope of each strategy. (MT 200010) Reflection Guide: Use this article for professional development. 


HS 




Special Needs Students 
Grade Band 
The Gifted Student Differentiating instruction for gifted students can enhance participation, engagement, and mathematical learning for all students. The purpose of this article is to (a) discuss gifted students’ perception of their participation to middle school mathematics classrooms; (b) explain how one teacher differentiated a mathematical task to engage all her students; and (c) discuss considerations for other middle school teachers tackling the challenge of differentiation. (MTMS 200812) 

MS 

Dynamic Concrete Instruction in an Inclusive Classroom Research is only beginning to show the benefits of the effective use of manipulatives with students who have disabilities. This article highlights how teachers can incorporate three manipulative instructional strategies to help students with highincidence disabilities. (MTMS 200711) 

MS 

Promoting Equity in Math: One Teacher's Journey Examines some of the negative impacts of mathematics tracking in schools and advocates for a heterogeneous learning environment. (MT 200708) 


HS 
Differentiating the Curriculum for Elementary Gifted Math Students This article describes the Mathematics Investigation Center (MIC), a tool to help elementary teachers differentiate the curriculum for their gifted mathematics students. Using the same mathematical theme that the rest of the class is studying, the activities provide depth for the gifted students by shifting from a computation level to a problem solving level. (TCM 200608) 
ES 


Using Tiered Lessons in Mathematics A stepbystep procedure to differentiate instruction through tiered lessons. (MTMS 200510) 


HS 
Differentiation for Special Needs Learners The foundations underlying the process of instructional differentiation for students with learning problems in mathematics and its application using a lesson that emphasizes the five Process Standards highlighted in Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. (TCM 200410) 
ES 


Building Responsibility for Learning in Students with Special Needs Ways that elementary school teachers can help students with special needs build responsibility for their own mathematical learning. (TCM 200410) 
ES 


Planning Strategies for Students with Special Needs A professional development activity on planning strategies to make mathematics lessons more accessible for students with special needs. (TCM 200410) 
ES 


Teaching Algebra to Students with Learning Disabilities Characteristics of students with learning disabilities and a review of strategies that algebra teachers can use with these students in the classroom. (MT 200312) 


HS 
Why Students with Special Needs Have Difficulty Learning Math Four learning characteristics that make learning and doing mathematics difficult for students with special needs. Instructional strategies that make learning and doing mathematics attainable for these students are described in the context of a vignette based on reallife experiences. (MTMS 200302) 
ES 
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The Versatile Magic Square The transformations that are possible to construct a variety of magic squares, including modifications to challenge students from elementary grades through algebra. An example of using magic squares with students who have special needs is also shared. (MTMS 200301) 
ES 
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Strategies for Helping Students Who Have Learning Disabilities in Math Strategies and modifications that will be helpful for students with learning disabilities and their mathematics teachers. (MTMS 200211) 

MS 

Anchored Learning in Context How a teacher adapts a lesson for a classroom of learning disabled students. The adaptations and suggestions given can be applied to a variety of different lesson situations. (MTMS 200209) 
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Culturally Relevant Teaching  Minority and English Language Learners (ELLs) 
Grade Band 
Problem Solving and the English Language Learner Techniques that can be used to enhance mathematics instruction for English language learners. (MTMS 200905) 
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Empowering Students through Data An activity that helps students understand data analysis concepts while learning how to take control of their learning. (MT 200904) 


HS 
Culturally Responsive Teaching of Mathematics: Three Models from Linked Studies Three models for developing and analyzing culturally responsive teaching in mathematics teacher education. The models were developed from and are illustrated by findings from a series of exploratory research studies conducted to evaluate various methods for preparing preservice teachers to address the educational implications of bicultural partnership between indigenous M?ori and New Zealand European groups. (JRME 200903) 
ES 
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Access to UpperLevel Mathematics: The Stories of Successful African American Middle School Boys This article is about 8 African American middle school boys who have experienced success in mathematics. Five themes emerged from the data: (a) early educational experiences, (b) recognition of abilities and how it was achieved, (c) support systems, (d) positive mathematical and academic identity, and (e) alternative identities. (JRME 200811) 

MS 

Equity for English Language Learners in Mathematics Classrooms A practical framework of how to equitably include English Language Learners (ELLs) in classrooms that promote teaching and learning mathematics with understanding. (TCM 200810) 
ES 
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Differentiating Instruction in Mathematics for the English Language Learner Mathematics teachers need to provide explicit language instruction for students learning English. By differentiating instruction in mathematics, teachers can plan and provide instruction in mathematics with the goal of providing access to all students. (MTMS 200810) 
ES 
MS 
HS 
Poverty: Teaching Math and Social Justice Three mathematics lessons presented in a social justice setting. Student activities include budgeting, graphic data representation, and linear regression, all in the context of connecting, communicating, and reasoning about poverty. (MT 200802) 


HS 
Bridging the Language Barrier in Math How action research was used to address the challenges of teaching math to ELL students. Researchbased activities used in the classroom are described along with how students reacted to the activities. (MT 200712) 


HS 
Ninety Percent of the Game is Half Mental This article illustrates effective instructional strategies for English Language learners. (TCM 200708) 
ES 


Magic with Mayan Math Activities that merge two fascinating mathematical topics: the Mayan system of numeration and magic squares. (TCM 200702) 
ES 
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Goals for Achieving Diversity in Mathematics Classrooms Building a framework for making mathematics truly accessible and inviting to a broad range of students. (MT 200511) Reflection Guide: Use this article for professional development. 


HS 
“Weigh” to Go! Exploring Mathematical Language The dynamics of language in the context of mathematics. The interaction of everyday words and specialized mathematics vocabulary impacts students' development of mathematical understanding. (TCM 200505) 
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LimitedEnglish Proficient (LEP) Students and Math Understanding Problematic issues that teachers and LEP students encounter, effective approaches for teaching mathematics to LEP students, and recommended learning strategies for LEP students. (TCM 200401) 
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Creating Cultural Relevance in Teaching and Learning Math The rationale behind culturally relevant teaching, including an educational experience that is aligned with this approach to mathematics teaching. (TCM 200210) 
ES 


Math Learning and the Latino Student Elements related to creating effective mathematics learning environments for Latino second language learners based on current research. (TCM 200209) 
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Mathematical Notations and Procedures of Recent Immigrant Students Some differences in representations of mathematical concepts and procedures of recent immigrants. Considerations for success of recent immigrants. (TCM 200202) 
ES 
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Using Student Contributions and Multiple Representations to Develop Mathematical Language As an alternative to using vocabulary lists to introduce students to mathematical language, this article describes a way to introduce and use mathematical language in mathematics classrooms that draws on multiple representations and student language. (MTMS 200210) 

MS 

Zero: A Special Case Students explore the origins, development and special properties of zero, and learn some important historical lessons about mathematics. Includes activity sheets and references web sites. (MTMS 200101) 

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Gender

Grade Band 
Families Ask: Middle School Girls in the Math Classroom Information and strategies to help keep girls on track, motivated, and confident in the mathematics classroom. (MTMS 200711) 

MS 

Preservice Teachers Examine Gender Equity in Teaching Mathematics Elementary preservice teachers examined one math teaching episode for equitable practices  many were surprised to find inequitable behavior in their teaching. (TCM 200703) 
ES 


The Equity Principle through the Voices of African American Males A discussion of the Equity Principle through the experiences of seventh and eighth grade African American males who have been successful in math. (MTMS 200409) Reflection Guide: Use this article for professional development. 

MS 
HS 
Challenges in Implementing Strategies for GenderAware Teaching Several challenges middle school mathematics teachers may face as they address gender equity in their classrooms. (MTMS 200205) 

MS 

Applying the Equity Principle Strategies for encouraging girls to participate in mathematics equally with boys. (MTMS 200109) 

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Readers Write: Girls' Olympiad A reader's letter describing her experience setting up a Girls Math Olympiad Team. (MTMS 200109) 

MS 

Gender Equity in Math Education Examines teachers' roles in addressing gender equity in mathematics as a factor in males' disproportionate participation in mathematics after high school. (TCM 200010) 
ES 


The Math Club for Girls and Other Problem Solvers Girls develop confidence in their mathematical abilities through their membership in a uniquely supportive math club. (MTMS 200003) 

MS 

Mathematically Rich, Equitable Game Software Characteristics of mathematically rich, equitable software for middle school students. (MTMS 199911) 

MS 

A Girl's Math Olympiad Team The Girls' Math Olympiad Team is one way of providing mathematical experiences that have an enriching effect on young women, adding to their selfesteem and broadening their career choices. (MTMS 199902) 

MS 
