Instructional programs from
prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to— 
In grades 9–12 all students
should— 
Understand patterns, relations, and
functions 
 generalize patterns using explicitly defined and recursively defined
functions;
 understand relations and functions and select, convert flexibly among, and
use various representations for them;
 analyze functions of one variable by investigating rates of change,
intercepts, zeros, asymptotes, and local and global behavior;
 understand and perform transformations such as arithmetically combining,
composing, and inverting commonly used functions, using technology to perform
such operations on morecomplicated symbolic expressions;
 understand and compare the properties of classes of functions, including
exponential, polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and periodic functions;
 interpret representations of functions of two variables

Represent and analyze mathematical
situations and structures using algebraic symbols 
 understand the meaning of equivalent forms of expressions, equations,
inequalities, and relations;
 write equivalent forms of equations, inequalities, and systems of equations
and solve them with fluency—mentally or with paper and pencil in simple cases
and using technology in all cases;
 use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical
relationships;
 use a variety of symbolic representations, including recursive and
parametric equations, for functions and relations;
 judge the meaning, utility, and reasonableness of the results of symbol
manipulations, including those carried out by technology.

Use mathematical models to represent and
understand quantitative relationships 
 identify essential quantitative relationships in a situation and determine
the class or classes of functions that might model the relationships;
 use symbolic expressions, including iterative and recursive forms, to
represent relationships arising from various contexts;
 draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being
modeled.

Analyze change in various contexts 
 approximate and interpret rates of change from graphical and numerical
data.

