*By Patrick Hopfensperger, Tim Jacobbe, Deborah Lurie, Jerry Moreno*

How Can We Sort Our Junk? Can You Roll Your Tongue? How Expensive Is Your Name? How Tall Were the Ancestors of Laetoli? What Do Frogs Eat? These are a few of the 20 data analysis and probability investigations in *Bridging the Gap (BTG). *The module’s investigations are written as guides for teachers to implement straightforwardly in their Kפ classrooms. Each investigation is based on the four-step statistical process as defined by the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE):

- Formulate a question that can answered by data
- Design and implement a plan to collect appropriate data
- Analyze the collected data by graphical and numerical methods
- Interpret the analysis in the context of the original question

Each investigation contains:

- A descriptive
**Overview **that discusses the big ideas presented in the investigation - A list of
**Learning Goals **that describe what students will be able to do as a result of completing the investigation - A reference to the
**Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice, Common Core State Standards Grade Level Content, and NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics** - A list of the
**Materials **needed for the investigation - A suggested
**Estimated Time**, with the number of days needed to complete the investigation **Instructional Plan **that follows the four-step statistical process as defined by GAISE- An
**Example of Interpret the Results **report that students need to write for each investigation - An
**Assessment with Answers** - Possible
**Extensions **of the material discussed in the investigation - A list of
**References pertaining to the investigation**

A CD-ROM that contains activity sheets and other material is included for ease of making copies for classroom use.

Graphs are an integral part of data analysis. Those found in BTG include bar graphs, dotplots, stemplots, boxplots, and scatterplots. Statistical measures include those identifying center (mode, median, mean), spread (range, inter-quartile range, mean absolute deviation), and correlation (quadrant count ratio).

Students who have mastered these investigations will be prepared to pursue those at the high-school level as found in Making Sense of Statistical Studies (MSSS). MSSS is a module of 15 activities covering the Common Core State Standards in Statistics involving surveys, observational studies, and experiments.

*Copublished with the American Statistical Association*