Combinations of 10 Lesson 4

  • Picture Book of 10: Showing Our Ways to Make 10

    Lesson 4 of 4
    Kindergarten and 1st grade

    45-60 minutes


    Students explore multiple ways to make ten with tens frames and drawings, with a final project of a class book.


    For each student:


    Share the literature book with your students. Be sure to stop and discuss the illustrations. Ask the students to tell you the equation that would match the illustration/text. Be sure to pull out all the combinations of 10.


    Explain to the children that they will be making a class book similar to the literature shared in class.
     ELL Accommodation: Give all students time to Think Pair Share about what they will be illustrating.  
     Each child will then get the Picture book of 10 template for their page of the book. Each student will roll a die and write that addend on the template. The student will write an equation, make a model on a ten frame, and draw an illustration.

    What combination did you make using the addend that you rolled?
    Can you add words or labels to your illustration?[MP2]
    Does your ten frame match your equation? [MP4]
    Does your illustration match your equation? [MP2]


    Collect the pages from the students and gather them on the rug.  One page at a time, the teacher covers all but the illustration, then asks the students:

    1. What is the equation?
    2. What combination of 10 is used in this drawing/tens frame?

    Make the pages into a class book to be placed in the class library for students to read.



    The teacher will use a rubric to evaluate student work. Get Rubric for Picture Book of 10 from Materials section above available as a download.


    1. Include problems in your number talks that would require students to use the making 10 strategy to solve.


    1. How does 6+4 help me to solve 6+5?
    2. How would 6+4 help me to solve 6+3?
    Share the book My Sister Ate One Hare by Bill Grossman.  Ask the students to find combinations of 10 with the items the sister ate. (Example 2 snakes + 8 worms = 10 items)


    Teacher Reflection

    • Were your students able to successfully create their book using multiple representations for each combination?

    Leave your thoughts in the comments below.

    Related Material

    Ten-Frame Game: Activity 3:  Fill

    Illuminations Interactive

    Other Lessons in This Activity

    Lesson 1 of 4

    Using macaroni, students model combinations through 10 and record a written expression.

    Lesson 2 of 4

    Use cubes to model combinations of ten; explore the different addend pairs, and play a card game to apply their understanding.

    Lesson 3 of 4

    Students use ten-frames to model combinations of ten. They explore the different addend pairs, and play a game to apply their understanding.

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  • Essential Question(s)

    • Can you show a combination of 10 in different ways?
    • What do I notice when looking at the drawing, ten frame and equation? How are they alike and how are they different?


    CCSS, Content Standards to specific grade/standard

    • 1.OA.C.2 Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).
    • K.OA.A.4 For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

    CCSS, Standards for Mathematical Practices

    • SMP 2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
    • SMP 4 Model with mathematics.

    PtA, highlighted Effective Teaching Practice and/or Guiding Principle CCSS

    • Use and connect mathematical representations.
    • Build procedural fluency from conceptual understanding.