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Number and Operations Standard for Grades Pre-K-2

 

 

Expectations 

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to—  In prekindergarten through grade 2 all students should— 
Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems
  • count with understanding and recognize "how many" in sets of objects;
  • use multiple models to develop initial understandings of place value and the base-ten number system;
  • develop understanding of the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers and of ordinal and cardinal numbers and their connections;
  • develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers;
  • connect number words and numerals to the quantities they represent, using various physical models and representations;
  • understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
 
Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another
  • understand various meanings of addition and subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two operations;
  • understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers;
  • understand situations that entail multiplication and division, such as equal groupings of objects and sharing equally.
 
Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates
  • develop and use strategies for whole-number computations, with a focus on addition and subtraction;
  • develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and subtraction;
  • use a variety of methods and tools to compute, including objects, mental computation, estimation, paper and pencil, and calculators.
 

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