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## Number and Operations Standard for Grades Pre-K-2

 Expectations
 Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to— In prekindergarten through grade 2 all students should— Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems count with understanding and recognize "how many" in sets of objects; use multiple models to develop initial understandings of place value and the base-ten number system; develop understanding of the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers and of ordinal and cardinal numbers and their connections; develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers; connect number words and numerals to the quantities they represent, using various physical models and representations; understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2. Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another understand various meanings of addition and subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two operations; understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers; understand situations that entail multiplication and division, such as equal groupings of objects and sharing equally. Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates develop and use strategies for whole-number computations, with a focus on addition and subtraction; develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and subtraction; use a variety of methods and tools to compute, including objects, mental computation, estimation, paper and pencil, and calculators.

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