Number and Operations Standard for Grades PreK2
Instructional programs from
prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to— 
In prekindergarten through grade 2 all
students should— 
Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers,
relationships among numbers, and number systems 
 count with understanding and recognize "how many" in sets of objects;
 use multiple models to develop initial understandings of place value and the
baseten number system;
 develop understanding of the relative position and magnitude of whole
numbers and of ordinal and cardinal numbers and their connections;
 develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible
ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers;
 connect number words and numerals to the quantities they represent, using
various physical models and representations;
 understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and
1/2.

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one
another 
 understand various meanings of addition and subtraction of whole numbers and
the relationship between the two operations;
 understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers;
 understand situations that entail multiplication and division, such as equal
groupings of objects and sharing equally.

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates 
 develop and use strategies for wholenumber computations, with a focus on
addition and subtraction;
 develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and
subtraction;
 use a variety of methods and tools to compute, including objects, mental
computation, estimation, paper and pencil, and
calculators.


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