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Measurement Standard

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to— 


Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement  

Pre-K–2 Expectations: In pre-K through grade 2 all students should–

  • recognize the attributes of length, volume, weight, area, and time;
  • compare and order objects according to these attributes;
  • understand how to measure using nonstandard and standard units;
  • select an appropriate unit and tool for the attribute being measured.

Grades 3–5 Expectations: In grades 3–5 all students should–

  • understand such attributes as length, area, weight, volume, and size of angle and select the appropriate type of unit for measuring each attribute;
  • understand the need for measuring with standard units and become familiar with standard units in the customary and metric systems;
  • carry out simple unit conversions, such as from centimeters to meters, within a system of measurement;
  • understand that measurements are approximations and how differences in units affect precision;
  • explore what happens to measurements of a two-dimensional shape such as its perimeter and area when the shape is changed in some way.

Grades 6–8 Expectations: In grades 6–8 all students should–

  • understand both metric and customary systems of measurement;
  • understand relationships among units and convert from one unit to another within the same system;
  • understand, select, and use units of appropriate size and type to measure angles, perimeter, area, surface area, and volume.

Grades 9–12 Expectations: In grades 9–12 all students should–

  • make decisions about units and scales that are appropriate for problem situations involving measurement

 


 

 

Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements.  

Pre-K–2 Expectations: In prekindergarten through grade 2 all students should–

  • measure with multiple copies of units of the same size, such as paper clips laid end to end;
  • use repetition of a single unit to measure something larger than the unit, for instance, measuring the length of a room with a single meterstick;
  • use tools to measure;
  • develop common referents for measures to make comparisons and estimates.

Grades 3–5 Expectations: In grades 3–5 all students should–

  • develop strategies for estimating the perimeters, areas, and volumes of irregular shapes;
  • select and apply appropriate standard units and tools to measure length, area, volume, weight, time, temperature, and the size of angles;
  • select and use benchmarks to estimate measurements;
  • develop, understand, and use formulas to find the area of rectangles and related triangles and parallelograms;
  • develop strategies to determine the surface areas and volumes of rectangular solids.

Grades 6–8 Expectations: In grades 6–8 all students should–

  • use common benchmarks to select appropriate methods for estimating measurements;
  • select and apply techniques and tools to accurately find length, area, volume, and angle measures to appropriate levels of precision;
  • develop and use formulas to determine the circumference of circles and the area of triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and circles and develop strategies to find the area of more-complex shapes;
  • develop strategies to determine the surface area and volume of selected prisms, pyramids, and cylinders;
  • solve problems involving scale factors, using ratio and proportion;
  • solve simple problems involving rates and derived measurements for such attributes as velocity and density.

Grades 9–12 Expectations: In grades 9–12 all students should–

  • analyze precision, accuracy, and approximate error in measurement situations;
  • understand and use formulas for the area, surface area, and volume of geometric figures, including cones, spheres, and cylinders;
  • apply informal concepts of successive approximation, upper and lower bounds, and limit in measurement situations;
  • use unit analysis to check measurement computations.


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