Deeanna Golden, a teacher of 24 years at F.M. Golson Elementary
School in Marianna, Florida, is a beloved Illuminations lesson plan
writer. So we asked her, "Why do you think it is important to share resources?"
These activities guide students through a
rich exploration of percent concentration using both tactile
experiences and real-world applications. Students predict, model, and
generalize their conjectures about percent concentrations.
In this unit, students become real
Students' number sense and problem
solving strategies are refined as groups compete for the title "Money
Every 4 years, citizens of the
United States elect the person they believe should be our nation's new leader.
This unit explores the mathematics of the electoral college, the system used in
this country to determine the winner in a presidential election. The lessons
include activities in percentages, ratios, and area, with a focus throughout on
building problem-solving and reasoning skills. They are designed to be used
individually to fit within your curriculum at the time of an election. However,
time permitting, they can be used as a unit to give students a strong
understanding of how small variations can mean one person becomes president and
another does not. Additionally, the lesson extensions include many ideas for
interdisciplinary activities and some possible school-wide activities.
In this unit, students make groups of 10 to
20 objects, connect number names to the groups, compose and decompose
numbers, and use numerals to record the size of a group. Visual,
auditory, and kinesthetic activities are included in each lesson. This
unit is most appropriate for students typically in the first grade.
These investigations use movement to
reinforce the concepts of linear functions and systems of equations. Multiple
representations are used throughout, along with tools such as motion detectors
and remote-controlled cars. Students explore how position, speed, and varying
motion are reflected in graphs, tables, and algebraic equations.
Students will explore theoretical
and experimental probability and the relationship between them. Students will
also graph an experiment to further explore the relationship according to the
Law of Large Numbers.
In this unit, students practice
measurement by measuring themselves. Students use nonstandard units to practice
measuring their heights and arm spans. Then, they create a "body map"
and use directional and positional words.
The interactive Paper Pool game provides an opportunity for students to
develop their understanding of ratio, proportion, greatest common factor
and least common multiple.
In this investigation, students are asked to play a game called Paper
Pool. The game is played on rectangular grids made of congruent
The Paper Pool unit was adapted with
permission and guidance from the Connected Mathematics Project.
Although no single lesson in this
unit addresses connections and representation by itself, the entire unit
focuses on the Connections and Representation Standards by allowing students to
make connections among mathematical ideas and asking students to use various
representations to organize their work.
In this unit, students use the area formula
for a rectangle to discover the area formulas for triangles,
parallelograms, and trapezoids. Students also consider irregular figures
whose areas can be determined by estimation or decomposition.
In this unit, students collect data
using objects, pictures, and symbols. They organize data by sorting and
classifying in different ways. Students display data using multiple
In the following lessons, students
participate in activities in which they focus on connections between
mathematics and children’s literature. Three pieces of literature are
used to teach geometry and measurement topics in the mathematics
curriculum, from using and describing geometric figures to estimating
volume of figures.
These lessons were adapted from "Ideas: Mathematics
and Children’s Literature," by Martha H. (Marty) Hopkins, which appeared
in The Arithmetic Teacher, May 1993, pp. 512‑519.
Each geometric investigation in this
unit begins with an open-ended question that engages students in a study of
triangles and their properties. This lesson was adapted from "IDEAS"
by Marea W. Channel, which appeared in the November, 1993 Arithmetic Teacher
(Teaching Children Mathematics), Vol. 41, No. 3.