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Process Standards

Problem Solving 

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12
should enable all students to—
 

  • Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving
  • Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts
  • Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
  • Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving

Reasoning and Proof 

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable
all students to—
 

  • Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics
  • Make and investigate mathematical conjectures
  • Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs
  • Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof 

Communication 

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable
all students to—
 

  • Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication 
  • Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others
  • Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others;
  • Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.   

Connections 

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable
all students to—
 

  • Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas
  • Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole
  • Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics

Representation 

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable
all students to—
 

  • Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas
  • Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems
  • Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena  


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