 Counting Back and Counting On(1)

• ## Counting Back and Counting On

Periods: 1
Author: Grace M. Burton

### Instructional Plan

To set the stage for learning, choose a counting back book to read from the Counting Books Resource Sheet, such as Ten Sly Piranhas, Ten Little Ladybugs, or Five Little Monkeys Sitting in a Tree. Counting Books

If no books are available, tell a story about counting back such as the following:

There were eight candies on a plate. Zack took one of them; then Yula took one; then Xavier took one, and Wilma took one, and so forth.
As the students listen to the story, have them model each number from the story with counters, links, or candies, then write the numeral and number word for each. Watching their responses will help you assess the students’ current level of understanding.  Now ask the students to build a chain of six links and hold the chain vertically so that it hangs down. Lead them in singing Six Little Ducks, from the Song Lyrics Resource Sheet, as they remove the links one at a time. Ask them to record each subtraction in vertical format. Song Lyrics

When the children are ready, ask them to share one of their differences and the counting process that was used to get it. Summarize how students can count back to subtract one.

### Assessments and Extensions

Assessment Options

1. Document your observations during class discussions and student practice. Use the Class Notes recording sheet.
2. Ask students to choose one subtraction example and write it in both vertical and horizontal format for an entry in their portfolio. Have them draw a picture that illustrates the subtraction fact.

Extensions

1. Put several counting back books in a math center along with paper, crayons and links. This availability will encourage children to continue to read books with a subtraction theme and to practice recording subtraction examples.
2. Move on to the next lesson, Taking Away Sets.

### Questions and Reflections

Questions for Students

1. How many links are in this chain (show a chain with ten links)? On this chain (show a chain with nine links)? Which chain has more? How many more?

[The chain with none links has more. It has one more link than the chain with ten links.]

2. What number sentence would show that you started with 10 links and took one away?

[10 – 1 = 9.]

3. What was alike between the two ways we recorded subtraction? What was different?

[The numbers we used were the same. We got the same answer. They look different because one is going across and one is going up and down.]

4. How could you help a younger child model this subtraction sentence (write 10 – 1)?

5. What does the minus sign mean?

[It means "take away."]

6. What two symbols did you use to mean equals?

[Two short lines and one long line. Students may point to the two symbols.]

7. When you count backwards, what comes after seven?

[Six comes after seven.]

Teacher Reflection

• Which books were best received? What others might you use?
• Were the materials used for counting back appropriate?
• Which students met all the objectives of this lesson? What extension activities would be appropriate for those children?
• Which students did not meet the objectives of this lesson? What instructional experiences do they need next?
• Do students understand the symbols for subtract and equals?
• What mathematical ideas need clarification?

### Objectives and Standards

Students will be able to:

• Count to 10.
• Model numbers to 10.
• Count differences from numbers to 10.
• Write and recognize numerals to 10.
• Record differences in vertical and in horizontal format.

### Related Resources Taking Away Sets Grade: PreK to 2ndSubtract sets of concrete objects and record differences. Hopping Backward on the Number Line Grade: PreK to 2ndCount backwards on a number line to subtract. Finding the Balance Grade: PreK to 2nd, 6th to 8thModel subtraction equations using pan balances. Finding Fact Families Grade: PreK to 2ndGenerate addition and subtraction fact families. Practice Makes Perfect Grade: PreK to 2ndMatch addition and subtraction facts in the same fact family. Looking Back and Moving Forward Grade: PreK to 2ndReview subtraction with concrete and symbolic representations.