Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable each and every student to—
- Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships
- Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems
- Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations
- Use visualization , spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems
Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships
Pre-K–2 Expectations: In pre-K through grade 2 each and every student should–
- recognize, name, build, draw, compare, and sort two- and three-dimensional shapes;
- describe attributes and parts of two- and three-dimensional shapes;
- investigate and predict the results of putting together and taking apart two- and three-dimensional shapes.
Grades 3–5 Expectations: In grades 3–5 each and every student should–
- identify, compare, and analyze attributes of two- and three-dimensional shapes and develop vocabulary to describe the attributes;
- classify two- and three-dimensional shapes according to their properties and develop definitions of classes of shapes such as triangles and pyramids;
- investigate, describe, and reason about the results of subdividing, combining, and transforming shapes;
- explore congruence and similarity;
- make and test conjectures about geometric properties and relationships and develop logical arguments to justify conclusions.
Grades 6–8 Expectations: In grades 6–8 each and every student should–
- precisely describe, classify, and understand relationships among types of two- and three-dimensional objects using their defining properties;
- understand relationships among the angles, side lengths, perimeters, areas, and volumes of similar objects;
- create and critique inductive and deductive arguments concerning geometric ideas and relationships, such as congruence, similarity, and the Pythagorean relationship.
Grades 9–12 Expectations: In grades 9–12 each and every student should–
- analyze properties and determine attributes of two- and three-dimensional objects;
- explore relationships (including congruence and similarity) among classes of two- and three-dimensional geometric objects, make and test conjectures about them, and solve problems involving them;
- establish the validity of geometric conjectures using deduction, prove theorems, and critique arguments made by others;
- use trigonometric relationships to determine lengths and angle measures.
Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems
Pre-K–2 Expectations: In pre-K through grade 2 each and every student should–
- describe, name, and interpret relative positions in space and apply ideas about relative position;
- describe, name, and interpret direction and distance in navigating space and apply ideas about direction and distance;
- find and name locations with simple relationships such as "near to" and in coordinate systems such as maps.
Grades 3–5 Expectations: In grades 3–5 each and every student should–
- describe location and movement using common language and geometric vocabulary;
- make and use coordinate systems to specify locations and to describe paths;
- find the distance between points along horizontal and vertical lines of a coordinate system.
Grades 6–8 Expectations: In grades 6–8 each and every student should–
- use coordinate geometry to represent and examine the properties of geometric shapes;
- use coordinate geometry to examine special geometric shapes, such as regular polygons or those with pairs of parallel or perpendicular sides.
Grades 9–12 Expectations: In grades 9–12 each and every student should–
- use Cartesian coordinates and other coordinate systems, such as navigational, polar, or spherical systems, to analyze geometric situations;
- investigate conjectures and solve problems involving two- and three-dimensional objects represented with Cartesian coordinates.
Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations
Pre-K–2 Expectations: In pre-K through grade 2 each and every student should–
- recognize and apply slides, flips, and turns;
- recognize and create shapes that have symmetry.
Grades 3–5 Expectations: In grades 3–5 each and every student should–
- predict and describe the results of sliding, flipping, and turning two-dimensional shapes;
- describe a motion or a series of motions that will show that two shapes are congruent;
- identify and describe line and rotational symmetry in two- and three-dimensional shapes and designs.
Grades 6–8 Expectations: In grades 6–8 each and every student should–
- describe sizes, positions, and orientations of shapes under informal transformations such as flips, turns, slides, and scaling;
- examine the congruence, similarity, and line or rotational symmetry of objects using transformations.
Grades 9–12 Expectations: In grades 9–12 each and every student should–
- understand and represent translations, reflections, rotations, and dilations of objects in the plane by using sketches, coordinates, vectors, function notation, and matrices;
- use various representations to help understand the effects of simple transformations and their compositions.
Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems
Pre-K–2 Expectations: In pre-K through grade 2 each and every student should–
- create mental images of geometric shapes using spatial memory and spatial visualization;
- recognize and represent shapes from different perspectives;
- relate ideas in geometry to ideas in number and measurement;
- recognize geometric shapes and structures in the environment and specify their location.
Grades 3–5 Expectations: In grades 3–5 each and every student should–
- build and draw geometric objects;
- create and describe mental images of objects, patterns, and paths;
- identify and build a three-dimensional object from two-dimensional representations of that object;
- identify and draw a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object;
- use geometric models to solve problems in other areas of mathematics, such as number and measurement;
- recognize geometric ideas and relationships and apply them to other disciplines and to problems that arise in the classroom or in everyday life.
Grades 6–8 Expectations: In grades 6–8 each and every student should–
- draw geometric objects with specified properties, such as side lengths or angle measures;
- use two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects to visualize and solve problems such as those involving surface area and volume;
- use visual tools such as networks to represent and solve problems;
- use geometric models to represent and explain numerical and algebraic relationships;
- recognize and apply geometric ideas and relationships in areas outside the mathematics classroom, such as art, science, and everyday life.
Grades 9–12 Expectations: In grades 9–12 each and every student should–
- draw and construct representations of two- and three-dimensional geometric objects using a variety of tools;
- visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives and analyze their cross sections;
- use vertex-edge graphs to model and solve problems;
- use geometric models to gain insights into, and answer questions in, other areas of mathematics;
- use geometric ideas to solve problems in, and gain insights into, other disciplines and other areas of interest such as art and architecture.